Holy Britannian Empire
Prior to the invasion of Japan, Britannia comprised of the entire North and South American continents as well as New Zealand and the Philippines. Oddly enough, the British Isles are not a part of Britannia, instead being part of the Euro Universe.
In the prologue to the series, Britannia invades Japan, one of the few other independent nations, in order to secure deposits of sakuradite. By today’ date, 2017 a.t.b., Britannia has conquered six more areas and are close to taking over the Middle Eastern Federation, which will become Area 18.
An Area is a nation or group of nations that has been conquered by Britannia and made into a colony. Each Area is designated with a number, and its people are referred to by that number. There are soon to be eighteen Areas, numbered in order of conquest.
Areas are given one of three categories: Reformation, Developing, and Satellite status. The "Reformation" category is also known as "Correctional." Following conquest, an Area gradually progresses through these areas and gains greater degrees of autonomy with it, though, in the case of a serious setback such as a popular uprising, an Area may be demoted. This has the effect of dividing moderates and hardliners within Britannian society, with the former seeking to improve an Area's status through peaceful obedience while the try to disrupt the process through their activities. The general Britannian policy is to let each Area govern itself.
- Colombia, Ecuador and Peru
- Guatemala, Belize, Cuba, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama
- Falkland Islands
- New Zealand
- Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana
- Bolivia, Paraguay, Chile, Argentina and Uruguay
- Papua New Guinea
- Southern Pacific Islands
- Middle Eastern Federation
Just as each sector is given a number, the natives of the region are referred to by the same number. Hence, Japanese become "Elevens" and natives of the Middle East, regardless of their ethnic group, become "Eighteens." Collectively, all Non-Britannians living within the Empire as referred to as the "Numbers", which many Britannians try to separate themselves from. Many Non-Britannians find this very offensive, and the Empire probably uses it as a form of cultural suppression. The term Numbers in itself is often used derogatorily by Britannians.
The capital of the Empire is the Imperial Capital of Pendragon, where Pendragon Palace is situated. The majority of the ruling family resides in the district of the capital known as "Saint Darwin Street".
The Emperor apparently resides in "Britannia Palace". Other residences in the capital include: Belial Palace, Warrick Palace and the Imperial Villa at Aries. Owing to his fond childhood memories of the beautiful aerial gardens at Aries, Clovis la Britannia later modelled the villa on top of the Viceroy's Palace in Area 11 after it. There is also mention the existence of a Capricorn Villa; considering the presence of Aries and Capricorn villas, it may be reasonable to suggest that there are other villas named after astrological symbols (i.e., Leo, Gemini, Libra). The Britannian capital of Pendragon appears to be in the middle of our present day Arizona.
California Base is a major port used by the Britannian Pacific Fleet, situated on the west coast of Britannian homeland. It may be analogous to our San Francisco, San Diego, or another major coastal city in the real California. It is also worth noting that California is referred to as its name in our world and not as an area, which suggests it is part of the Homeland. It is also worthy of note that, before becoming part of the United States, Mexico held control of California, which was grouped together with Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Nevada, and part of Colorado to form "Alta California" as well as controlling Baja California; the California in Britannia may refer to both of these regions together, and not necessarily to the area of the real-world U.S. state of California.
Britannia traces its cultural origins back to the attempted invasion of the British Isles by Julius Caesar in 55 BC. Caesar was met with strong resistance from the local Celtic tribes, who elected a "super-leader," the Celtic King Eowyn, who became the founder of the imperial family. The election of the king and the repulsion of the Romans is the starting date of "Ascension Throne Britannia," the universal dating system in Code Geass, which is similar to the Gregorian calendar of our world, though dated fifty-five years earlier. This would place the date of the invasion of Japan, in 2010 a.t.b., in our 1955, and the events of the series in our 1962 and 1963. (In actual history, Caesar's invasion failed, but was followed by a successful invasion by Claudius.)
It is not stated if the current imperial family (that of Charles) traces its genealogy back to Eowyn, or if the British Isles remained independent of Roman rule during the course of their history or if they were also able to repel the invasions of barbarians, i.e., if the Britannians are the descendants of Celts or if they are Anglo-Saxons as the British of our world are. It is also not clear what effect the Viking and Norman invasions in the Middle Ages had on the British Isles in Code Geass, or if they occurred at all. (In actual history, the invasion of Germanic tribes, notably the Saxons, pushed the Celtic peoples of the British Isles out of what we know as England, into Wales and Scotland.)
Early Modern Era
During the reign of Elizabeth I (which would presumably be dated as 1613-1658 a.t.b rather than 1558-1603 AD), the queen remained unmarried, but bore a son, the father of whom is never publicly identified, though candidates were Sir Robert Dudly, the 1st Earl of Leicester, Sir Robert Devereux, the 2nd Earl of Essex, and Sir Carl, the Duke of Britannia. Each of these men would use this knowledge to garner influence and power in the country. Elizabeth I's son ascended to the throne as Henry IX upon the death of his mother in 1658 (our 1603). His ascension was said to mark the beginning of "the Golden Age of the Tudor dynasty." (In actual history, Elizabeth I died childless as the last monarch of the Tudor dynasty.)
Britannia's history drastically diverges from our timeline during the "Age of Revolutions," starting with the failure of the American Revolutionary War in the 1830s (our 1770s), which is known as "Washington's Rebellion" in the history of Code Geass. The revolution failed because Benjamin Franklin was bribed off by the Duke of Britannia with the title of earl. George Washington and the Continental Army suffered a crippling defeat at the battle of Yorktown, at which point control of the North American colonies by Britannia was assured.
The colonial possessions of "Britannia" at this time are not clear in relation to our British Empire; it is not made clear if Britannia ever colonized the Indian Subcontinent (as China controls it at the beginning of the series) or if it was ever an active colonial power in Africa. It seems that Britannia's most important overseas possessions were in North America.
The Age of Revolution
As the "Age of Revolution" reached its peak, many of the old monarchies in Europe were overthrown, but Henry X of Britannia retained an absolute monarchy. The greatest of these revolutions at the time was the French Revolution, which eventually produced the rule of Napoleon Bonaparte. It was Napoleon who orchestrated the greatest formative event which resulted in the creation of the Holy Britannian Empire. A decisive victory at the Battle of Trafalgar allowed Napoleon to invade the British Isles and occupy London. Napoleon's invasion of the British Isles advanced to the point that, in 1862 (our 1807), Queen Elizabeth III was forced to retreat to Edinburgh, where a local revolutionary group arrested her and forced her to abdicate the throne, ending the monarchy over the British Isles. This event came to be known as the "Humiliation of Edinburgh." (In actual history, the French invasion fleet suffered a crippling defeat at Trafalgar to Admiral Nelson.)
However, Sir Ricardo von Britannia, Duke of Britannia, and his friend and subordinate Sir Richard Hector, Knight of One, led a retreat with Elizabeth III and the remaining loyalists in the British Isles to the North American colonies, establishing a capital on the east coast. In 1868 (our 1813), Elizabeth III died childless, nominating Ricardo von Britannia as her successor on her deathbed. It was at this time that the "Ascension Throne Britannia" calendar was established. Though Napoleon successfully conquered the British Isles, his rule over Europe ran into popular discontent and culminated in his defeat at the Battle of Waterloo in 1876 (our 1821, which occurred in 1815 in our timeline). Napoleon died on his way back to France; it is rumoured that he was poisoned by agents who were acting in accordance with Elizabeth III's will. With the departure of Napoleon and his imperial ambitions from history, a new Europe-spanning empire with democratic ideals arose, and would later become the modern Euro Universe. Over time, the EU would grow to encompass all of Europe, including the whole of Russia, and Africa, and would for centuries be the bitter enemy of Elizabeth III's followers in North America.
Development and Expansion
By the end of the Napoleonic Wars, the "Britannians" were essentially the defeated remains of the absolutist aristocracy of the British Isles who had retreated to their colonial holdings in North America following the loss of their original homeland. Even before the Napoleonic Wars, the Britannian aristocracy had utterly reject all notions of democracy that were put forth by the Enlightenment and the Age of Revolution, instead embracing absolutism like that of the Tudor dynasty. Their humiliating defeat and exile only further embittered the Britannians, causing them to fully embrace a national ethos of revanchism. The resulting Holy Britannian Empire, while geographically centred in the area of our United States and descended from our British Empire, is analogous to neither of these political entities, instead being an odd mix of North American Tories (pro-British colonials, or loyalists, from the Revolutionary era) and imperial British aristocrats.
The small population of "Britannian" nobles had reached a critical low point, having a very small core population, but were determined to rebuild their former power in North America, and began and aggressive campaign of conquest. Presumably this campaign began as events analogous to our Manifest Destiny, but clearly eventually grew to stretch across both North and South America, presumably seizing former European colonial regions such as the empires of Mexico and Brazil. After being pushed to the edge of oblivion, the Britannians now saw international politics as a fight for survival, and rapidly rebuilt themselves into a world power by dominating the rest of the Americas. Each new region that was conquered appears to be designated as an "Area," and its indigenous population as "Numbers" named after their Area.
Because the original core population of Britannians was so small, a very stratified and highly classist social hierarchy was established, in which the extremely small minority of "pureblood" Britannians (who were descended from the original British aristocrats who fled to North America) ruled over the "honorary Britannians" (who held a mid-level social position. At the very bottom were the Numbers, the conquered peoples who lived in segregated ghettos similar to those of Nazi Germany, practically as slaves. "Britannian" as an ethnicity seems to be a rather loose term, as aristocrats and ordinary citizens of different races are seen together. It may be that Britannian society cares more about national identity than racial identity, or that, over time, Areas are slowly accepted as legitimate parts of the empire and not as colonies and their indigenous people come to be considered ethnic Britannians. Numbers can also apply for honorary citizenship, but are still treated as second-class citizens or even slaves and generally occupy working-class positions in much the same way as many minorities in our United States.
When Charles Darwin proposed his Theory of Evolution, which was later appropriated by the philosophy of Social Darwinism, it readily caught on in Britannia. The idea that conflict and competition promoted growth, that those who conquered and subjugated other peoples were justified in doing so, was well-accepted by Britannians. They saw it as the ultimate justification for their struggle to claw back from the brink of extinction and over the decades turn themselves into a world power again, and for their campaign of survival, conquest, and, ultimately, revenge.
The Holy Britannian Empire utterly embraced Social Darwinism not only as a national ethos and mentality, but even as something akin to a state religion; Charles Darwin came to be referred to as Saint Darwin, as an example, and the Emperor Charles may very well have been named after the naturalist. The subjugation and oppression of non-Britannians became a systematically applied set of negative virtues, which brought about the act of Britannia "reforming itself along Prussian lines" as the society became almost entirely dedicated to the military effort and further conquests.
By the time of the (unspecified) World Wars in the mid-20th century, the Holy Britannian Empire had already become one of the three superpower nations that controlled a third of the planet, the other two being the Euro Universe and the Chinese Federation. Of note is the fact that the three superpowers are similar in their geographic composition to the three superpowers of Nineteen Eighty-Four: Oceania (Britannia), Eurasia (Euro Universe), and Eastasia (Chinese Federation).
Conquest of Japan
The rare mineral, sakuradite, became increasingly valuable as more and more modern military technology relied upon it; the superconductive properties of it resulted in technological miniaturization which allowed for the development of such machines as Knightmare Frames. Unfortunately for Britannia, 70% of the world's sakuradite came from reserves located in Japan. While not being part of the three superpowers, Japan was able to maintain its independence and economic superiority by manipulating sakuradite supplies to each of the three superpowers to maintain a balance of power; essentially, if any one superpower tried to invade Japan and seize its sakuradite reserves, it would give them such an advantage that the other two powers would have to attack it instantly or risk annihilation. Consequently, no one superpower was willing to risk a world war by conquering Japan, even though each of them was perfectly capable of doing so.
In 2010 a.t.b., after the conquest of Area 10 by Britannia, Japan decided to align with the policies of the Chinese Federation and Euro Universe and apply economic pressure upon Britannia, an event which came to be referred to as the Oriental Incident; all three factions blockaded Britannian ports in an attempt to force negotiations.
The plan backfired, though, as Britannia instead invaded Japan on August 10th in the Second Pacific War. Lasting only a month, Britannia conquered Japan thanks to the large-scale implementation of fourth-generation Knightmares as weapons of war, whose combination of mobility and firepower gave them a complete advantage over the more standard main battle tanks of Japan. The conquered island nation was renamed Area 11, and its citizens "Elevens." Britannia accomplished this feat without retaliation from the EU and the Chinese Federation thanks to clever political manipulation: Britannia divided the sakuradite production of Japan into thirds and evenly distributed it among the three superpowers. More sakuradite was produced overall as the Japanese no longer had any say in the matter, such as the exploitation of sakuradite deposits under Mt. Fuji which caused the sacred mountain to be defaced in pursuit of the mineral. Britannia wisely gave the other two superpowers equal shares in the stockpiles of sakuradite, essentially bribing them out of war or even allying with each other.
A major reason as to why the war ended so abruptly was the apparent suicide of the Japanese Prime Minister, Genbu Kururugi. Though Japan had been militarily defeated, it had not completely surrendered and was prepared to mount a do-or-die resistance against Britannia; ironically, this meant that Britannia had never actually broken Japan or even really demoralized its population beyond hope, and its industrial and economic capacities were never completely destroyed. This meant that Area 11 was never a fully pacified occupation sector for Britannian forces, which may account at least in part for the rather brutal treatment of Elevens by Britannians.
Britannia appears to be an absolute monarchy, meaning that the Royal Family holds most or all governmental power, though there is also a bicameral legislature in effect, at least in the Britannian Homeland. The Upper House is the House of Lords, which probably represents the interests of the aristocrats, while the Lower House is the Senate, and there are also State Legislatures from which Senators may be drawn. With the aristocracy dominating the House of Lords, the Senate represents the common people. In all of Code Geass media, the only named member of the Senate is William H. Helmsley, who was assassinated in front of the Tennessee State Legislature in Nashville. This seems to indicate that the Senate actually wields enough power to warrant an assassin being dispatched to assassinate him. Helmsley stood in opposition of the House of Lords on the issue of demoting Area 8 to a correctional sub-Area. Prince Schneizel, as Prime Minister, is in charge of both Houses.
While the policies of Britannia vary depending on the reigning emperor, its succession is based on Social Darwinism rather than divine mandate as their name would suggest. Consequently, much bloodshed and in-fighting occurs between members of the royal family; one who wants to become the next monarch has to lie, cheat, and murder their way to the top.
Lower nobility controls much of the business and bureaucracy outside the Royal Family, and judging by the number of legal and illegal businesses that appear in occupied areas, capitalism is widely encouraged. The residents of conquered nations can become Honorary Britannian citizen, and while not genuine Britannians or free from discrimination, they are entitled to the same basic rights. Those who refuse to accept honorary citizenship are consigned to live in rundown ghettos, while those who accept it may live in the prosperous Britannian colonial cities, called Concessions. Britannian corporations are described as Zaibatsu in Japanese, referring to powerful business cliques
Charles zi Britannia's Era
Outside the Royal Family, there were numerous noble ranks during Charles' era, listed here in order of importance:
Baronet, non-hereditary (none military) / Knight, non-hereditary (Military)
Knight of Honour, non-hereditary
There is also the rank Viceroy that goes above Archduke, however this is more of a job title and member of the Royal Family are known to hold this title.
Although descended from the former British Empire, with English as it's national language and direct cultural roots that still exist in its modern state (such as drinking tea as a beverage and an appreciation for classical art, opera, equestrianism and namesakes e.g. Glasgow, Sutherland and Warrick) Britannia's culture is both unique and diverse, mirroring that of many real world countries, especially that of America and other European nations (French cuisine seemingly admired throughout both series despite a deep rivalry with the EU over their control of the British Isles.)
Britannia possesses advanced forms of communication including modern cell phones, ear pieces, the internet and television, and information seems to flow freely, despite rigid censorship and state propaganda in news broadcasts. They are also shown to be watching TV shows on a small hand-held television. The Tokyo Concession is abound with giant solar panels around its edges, and vehicles seem to lack exhaust pipes, possibly indicating that for all their racist policies, Britannia is a green society, free of pollution.
Britannia is a highly capitalist and consumerist society and the ruthless 'survival of the fittest' nature of capitalism fits well with Britannia's belief in Social Darwinism. Corporations in Britannia apparently wield large amounts of power and influence.
Among the Britannians themselves, there does not appear to be a great amount of discontent with the current governmental system. This indicates that the Britannian government is not as repressive of the lower class Britannian citizens, in comparison to the repression of the Numbers.
These characteristics apparently result in spite for the Britannians being built up, especially among the Numbers. It has been demonstrated that some Numbers seem to have little concern for the wellbeing of Britannian innocents, viewing them as no better than the government.
Despite being a 'Holy Empire,' religion does not seem to be a governing factor in Britannian society. It is not based on divine right, i.e being placed on the throne by God or as God's representative as in a theocracy. Britannia has their own version of Christianity, where the Emperor is treated like the pope.
The Empire uses the a.t.b. or "Ascension Throne Britannia" calendar, also called the "Imperial Calendar", which is dated to the election of the Celtic super-king Eowyn in order to repel the invasion of Julius Caesar. Consequently, it is dated fifty-five years earlier than the Gregorian calendar used in our world. With this in mind, it should be noted that the events of Code Geass dated to 2017 in-universe is equivalent to our history's 1962, even though technology is far more advanced. This is the major point of divergence from our timeline.
The Anthem of the Empire is called "All Hail Britannia!!!", after the Britannic Salute.
Truth and hope in our Fatherland!
And death to every foe!
Our soldiers shall not pause to rest
We vow our loyalty
Old traditions they will abide
Arise young heroes!
Our past inspires noble deeds
All Hail Britannia!
Immortal beacon shows the way
Step forth, seek glory!
Hoist your swords high into the clouds
Our Emperor stands astride this world
He’ll vanquish every foe!
His truth and justice shine so bright
All hail his brilliant light!
Never will he be overthrown
Like mountains and sea
His bloodline immortal and pure
All Hail Britannia!
So let his wisdom guide our way
Go forth and seek glory
Hoist your swords high into the clouds
The Holy Empire of Britannia is clearly inspired by the British Empire of the 15th-20th centuries. This can be seen through the world-spanning size of the Empire, it's territorial holdings (such as the Falkland Isles, North America, and New Zealand), its system of government (with an aristocracy, House of Lords and a Prime Minister), and its namesakes, i.e., Ashford, Dalton, Guilford, Warrick, Glasgow, Colchester, Bartley. The name 'Britannia' is a Roman name given to the province of Britain when it was part of the Roman Empire.
Military - Britannian Armed Forces
The Britannian Military includes all Armed Forces of the Holy Empire of Britannia. It is believed to be one of the largest, most powerful, and most technologically advanced military in the world. Members of the military play important roles throughout the series.
The use of footsoldiers within the Empire is fairly unknown, and only a few instances of them being deployed are shown, usually when a Knightmare would be too large to use. When they are, squads of Honorary Britannians and Britannians are likely to be used, as "grunt work", like hunting down rebels in a ghetto. Britannian foot soldiers are typically outfitted with assault rifles, pistols, body armour, and helmets with electronic visors. They are well trained and very loyal to the Empire.
When they're not in their armour, army officers and soldiers are seen to be wearing blue uniforms. The Britannian Combat Uniform is considered to be the most advanced in the world. The uniform consist of Gray Jumpsuit, Flak Vest, two Pauldron and a Helmet, the Helmet is seen as the most technologically advanced part of the Armour, the helmet have a built in walkie-talkie, electronic visor which allow them to see in the dark and a gas mask.
The Royal guard is a personal group of soldiers that serves the members of the Imperial Family, and it has also been shown that the Knights of the Round also have their own Royal guards. However the full aspect of the Royal Guard is unknown.
Knightmare Frames are the most basic type of unit used by Britannian forces, originally developed by the Britannians themselves. Essentially a large armoured robotic frame, Knightmares have proven themselves effective in almost all combat situations, and the other world powers have only recently began building their own versions of the Britannian models in order to compete, however often with limited success.
Originally deployed during the invasion of Japan, Knightmares proved that, despite their bulky appearance and high manufacture cost, their agility, manoeuvrability and adaptability gave them an advantage over simpler, more conventional siege weaponry. Currently the Glasgows is slowly being replaced with the Sutherland. Though it was superior to the Glasgows, the Sutherland offered little improvements compared to its predecessor.
Conventional vehicles like tanks, armoured personnel carriers and other military vehicles are sometimes used by the Britannian military. Large mobile bases, such as G-1 Bases are often deployed as a command centre and field hospital in potentially hostile territory. Similar machines can be seen throughout the series being used to quickly deploy large numbers of Knightmares.
Actual airplanes are rarely, if never, used in combat by the Empire, though VTOL gunships and Knightmare VTOL are often seen, the latter used as Knightmare dropships.
While battleships are seen used by the Empire in early battles, ships do not seems to play an important military role in the Empire, usually delegated the role of transport and trade. This is possibly why the Black Knights chose a submarine as one of their first headquarters. However, the Britannian military is by no means incapable of aquatic or even deep-sea combat, as shown by effectiveness of the Royal Marine Infantry (RMI)-13 Portman series of amphibious frames.
"Knights" are specialized bodyguards or groups of soldiers, usually Knightmare pilots, who operate outside standard Britannian military hierarchy and are under personal command of a member of the Royal family. They are known to wield swords as well as fire arms.
Knights of the Round
The Knights of the Rounds or formerly known as the 12 Horsemen is a unit of twelve elite soldiers in the Holy Empire of Britannia, each being assigned into the group by royalty and under direct command of the Emperor. The Knights of the Round extends to at least the 18th century, with the first Knight of One being Sir Richard Hector. Named after the Arthurian Knights of the Round Table, they operate outside the standard Britannian military and are given special privileges and authority.
Aside from the Knight of One, there were no known distinctions in privileges between the numbers as they existed in the era. The Knight of One may request governance of any colonial area of his choosing from the Emperor. After a person is captured for assaulting a knight, the knight can then decide the fate of the captured person. Only eight of the twelve Knights have been revealed in the show, however the novels explain that not all of the seats are filled, so those featured might be the only active members. A Knight of the Round cannot be punished for his crimes by anyone other than the Britannian Emperor. Below is a list of the known Knights of Round:
- Bismarck Waldstein
- Afraid Wayne
- Dorothea Ernst
- Unknown/Unfilled (Bismarck Waldstein held this place before coming the Knight of One)
- Unfilled* (formerly Marianne vi Britannia)
- Holica Thomas
- Nonette Enneagram
- Luciano Bradley
- Monica Kruszeaski
* These places will be filled by the beginning of season two of Code Geass.
Other Military History
In the history of Code Geass, George Washington and the Continental Army failed to wrestle control of the Thirteen Colonies from Britannia. Benjamin Franklin betrayed the Revolutionaries in exchange for the title of earl. Ironically, the colonies that had once tried to break away from Britannia would one day become its new homeland.
Though Washington was defeated, his democratic legacy would live on in the Euro Universe, the Flare party, political extremists, and small resistance groups on the mainland.
First Pacific War
Though unmentioned, there must be a First Pacific War in the world history of Code Geass because of the Second Pacific War's naming. It may be that the First Pacific War is roughly analogous to the Pacific Theater of our World War II, in which Britannia may have taken on the role of our United States.
Second Pacific War
The war in which Britannia invaded, conquered, and annexed Japan, turning it into Area 11.
The Euro Universe is one of the three main Superpowers in the Code Geass Universe. The creation of the E.U. has been estimated around the 19th century a.t.b., or the Industrial Revolution, when Napoleon Bonaparte was successful in the war against Britannia and occupied the British Isles. This caused the British Royal family to be exiled to the Americas that were recently neutralized from Washington's rebellion. Although in 1870 a.t.b. (1815 A.D.), Napoleon suffers defeat at Waterloo and ends the theory of the possible conquering and submission of Russia, it joins the E.U. later on in history, the meaning is unknown as the events between 1870 - 2010 a.t.b are not described. It is possible that similar events to the World Wars happened (evidence to this can be seen in flashbacks of C.C.'s childhood) and a bond was formed between the two and the E.U. expanded further with the Imperialism of Africa. While geographically the largest of the three, it receives little actual attention in the show. It is usually abbreviated as the E.U., which may be a reference to the real-world European Union.
The E.U. to contain all of Africa, Europe, the Russian parts of Asia, and parts of the Middle-east.
Supposedly being formed soon after the age of Revolution in Europe, the E.U. is probably the most democratic of the three supernations, but also most divided. Beyond that, little is known about the E.U.'s central government, although going by the name and democratic political base, it is likely headed by a council of sorts with representatives from each Euro universe state. The council has been referred to as the Central Hemicycle.
The E.U.'s military is divided into national forces referred to as 'state armies', though their exact nature is not revealed. The only known knightmare frame belonging to the E.U. is the Panzer-Hummel, which appears to be between the Chinese Gun-Ru and Britannian machines in technology level, although this model was shown to actually be effective against Britannian Sutherlands when fighting at a distance. The EU officers and personnel displayed in the sequence wear grey uniforms, with a gold diamond symbol, which may be the EU's emblem. The EU is described as having enforced a blockade on Britannia (in cooperation with the Chinese Federation) during the 'Indochina Incident', implying a significant naval capability. On the other hand, the source describes Britannian vessels being shut out of the waters of developing countries, implying that the EU's effort was diplomatic, not military.
There is evidence, in the person of Akito Hyuga, that the EU has employed Japanese exiles as soldiers.
The E.U. is believed to have been in conflict with both the Chinese Federation and the Britannian Empire for some time. Some of its members has been conducting peace negotiations with Britannia, and thus become part of its territory.
While it might be more respectful of human rights than its Britannian counterpart, the Chinese Federation is still an imperial monarchy with most of the power concentrated in the hands of High Eunuchs, the Empress Tianzi now serving more of a symbolic role.
The capital of the Federation is the Vermilion Forbidden City in Luoyang, where the young Empress spent most of her life.
While not as large as either Britannia or the E.U., the Chinese federation still holds a substantial amount of territory that includes all of Eastern Asia (with the exception of Japan), Southern Asia, Central Asia, and parts of Southeast Asia.
Militarized Zone of India
The Militarized Zone of India is one of the territories under the Chinese Federation. It is referred to by the Federation government with the diminutive "beyond known lands", Maharajah is the Head of State or a Governor of the Militarized Zone of India. India is said to be vying for independence, and has to this end covertly amassed profits by supplying arms to Resistance groups.
Militarized Zone of Liaodong
The Militarized Zone of Liaodong is a territory on the eastern seaboard of the Chinese Federation under the jurisdiction of General Cao. Liaodong is a peninsula right next to the Korean Peninsula, hence explaining its close proximity to Area 11. In our world, Liaodong was ceded to the Japanese after the first Sino-Japanese War.
While geographically the smallest of the three supernations, the Chinese Federation is no doubt the one with the highest population, consisting of at least 2.5 billion people counting the modern-day population of the world. However, it is also noted that a large portion of the Federations population consists of the elderly. It is mentioned that the vast majority of the Federation's citizens live in poverty.
The Chinese Federation maintains regular military forces not dissimilar to those of Britannia. Their numbers and organization are not stated.
Regular infantry wear green armour with stylized helmets and carry assault rifles. They are also seen carrying swords. Officers also carry swords. The Army of the Forbidden City (also called the Forbidden Army in some sources) wear stylized red uniforms and carry traditional weapons as part of their role as Tianzi's Ceremonial Guard. They also have access to firearms and red-painted Gun-Ru Knightmares. Though outwardly loyal to the Empress, they are in fact controlled by the Eunuchs.
The standard Chinese Knightmare is the Gun-Ru, which is generally deployed in large units. They are referred to as 'Dragon Cavalry', though whether this is the Knightmare-using arm of the Chinese forces (their answer to the Britannian RPI) or a specific unit is unclear. They are supported by VTOL helijets similar to those used by Britannia, along with four-wheeled AFVs armed with cannon and missile pods. China also uses Longdan land fortresses, which appear to perform the same role as the Britannian G-1, while also providing artillery support. These vehicles are generally used in a combined-arms approach. Chinese naval forces are mentioned in Stage 24: The Collapsing Stage, but no actual details are revealed.
The Chinese Federation is implied to have a ballistic missile capability, with missiles at the Dalian base, which is on the Liaodong Peninsula. This implies that they had a hand in the invasion of Kyushu, which would give them a minimum range of approximately 1000 km.
The governing system in effect at the introduction of the Chinese Federation resembles pre-three kingdoms (Han) and three kingdoms (Wu, Shu, Wei) era's system of government, with the high Eunuchs running the major details of the country, ruling from Luoyang, the historical capital of the Han Dynasty (As opposed to Beijing, which was established as the capital by the Mongol Rulers of the Yuan Dynasty). All engagements shown in battle (Xiaopei, Xuzhou, Jiameng Pass) are areas that existed in the three kingdoms period, and classic surnames from the three kingdoms era appear frequently as well, Xi, Zhou, and Cao being prime examples, leading one to believe the Chinese Federation is loosely based off of The Romance of the Three Kingdoms. Moreover, the Mausoleum of the 88 Emperors and said 88 emperors suggests that, assuming each Emperor ruled for about 25 years each and bringing into account the 55 years extra in the Britannian Calendar as opposed to the Anno Domini calendar used by our world, the Dynasty has ruled in unbroken succession from around 127 B.C., the time in which the Han Empire was in its heyday.
Knightmare Frames are humanoid war machines developed by the Holy Britannian Empire. Unveiled during the invasion of Japan, Knightmare Frames are almost exclusively used in place, and sometimes on par with the practically obsolete main battle tanks. The name "Knightmare Frame" is a play on the word nightmare and a knight's mare. There also exists a derivative type of war machine based on the Knightmare Frames called Knight Giga Fortress.
Knightmare Frames often have a humanoid shape and are usually between four and five meters tall. In addition to the standard range of bipedal movement, Knightmare Frames are equipped with Landspinners, self-propelled roller skates attached to the ankles of the machines, which allow them to achieve high mobility and speeds on most terrain. Visual data is gathered through Factsphere sensors, which have thermographic capability and an array of other data-collection functions which are collated in real-time. Factspheres are commonly protected under a layer of armour which can be retracted to improve system sensitivity. Knightmare Frames are piloted from a cockpit set in the protruding 'hump back' in the unit. The cockpit is a self-contained control centre which can be ejected in case of emergency. Although Knightmare heads seem to have no real function besides housing Factsphere sensors, it seems they are required to pilot the knightmare, as seen when a pilot ejects himself when his knightmare's head is knocked off.
Knightmare Frames are typically armed with rocket-propelled anchors called Slash Harkens and a number of other weapons. Mass-production models usually carry handheld rifles, which are able to fire micro ordinance as well, and a number of Chaos Mines, cylindrical air burst grenades that spray deadly shrapnel over a small area. Less common equipment, though more widespread as the series progresses, are Maser Vibration Swords (MVS), a form of vibroblade which oscillates at a high rate to cut through almost anything, and Hadron Cannons, powerful energy cannons which can obliterate almost anything in their path.
Knightmare Frames are powered by the Yggdrasil Drive, a fictional energy source. Its centrepiece is a Sakuradite device called the Core Luminous, wherein a cube of unknown composition is weightlessly suspended. The cube revolves at high speeds during a state of drive activation known as Yggdrasil Resonance, apparently involved in the conduction of electricity. The technology is named after the Yggdrasil Tree of Norse Mythology. The drive is recharged through a Sakuradite energy filler.
Despite constant animations directed at the Yggdrasil Drive, its location in the knightmare has never been made clear, nor has the energy filler. It is estimated the Yggdrasil Drive's location is around the waist for most knightmare frames, as arms and legs are constantly destroyed in combat but the knightmare is still able to function
Inside a standard knightmare frames cockpit block some of the mainstream features are the three panoramic display monitors, the dual control joysticks, and instrument panels. The panoramic monitors are linked to outside sensors and cameras, and can be switched to display other information such as status or even as a video communication system. In custom frames, the interface system varies, dependent on the knightmare's primary function towards combat.
The creation of Knightmare Frames is roughly divided in nine Ages, which mark the birth of a new kind of weapon platform and its evolution into a full-fledged combat system.
First Age: Infancy
The beginnings of the Knightmare Frame came from the creation of 'emergency survival cockpits' for conventional vehicles. Equipped with rocket engines to fly the crew away from the wreck, the contraptions were soon equipped with artificial legs to allow greater mobility. Limited room inside said vehicles restricted the number of legs to two. Though not a weapon in any sense of the word, the 'walking cockpits' provided the base form for their successors.
Second Age: Turning Point
Several years later, the creation of several common Knightmare Frame technologies, such as the Factspheres and Landspinners, lead to the funding for Knightmare Frame prototypes. However, the new technologies performed erratically, and the research was outsourced to military-based robotics projects and social-oriented programs. The former was assigned to a Britannian Army Special Division, the 'Special Dispatch Guidance System Division', while the latter went in the hands of a private group, the Ashford Foundation. The foundation implemented technologies related to training and education, enabling the entire Knightmare Frame program to make progress fluidly.
The bipedal weapon was nicknamed 'Knightmare' by the Army but its non-offensive equipment was referred to as 'Frame' by civilians. The union of those two terms gave birth to the name 'Knightmare Frame'.
Third Age: Archetype
With the results gained from the two separate programs, Knightmare Frames were developed in combat-effective platforms. Use of Sakuradite became paramount in making the Knightmare Frames perform to expectations, resulting in the mineral's value increasing greatly, turning it a into resource as important as fossil fuels in international politics.
The Third Age also marked the creation of the Ganymede prototype, manufactured and designed by the Ashford Foundation. Its test pilot, Marianne quickly became famous and was granted knighthood as a part of the Knights of the Round, before eventually getting married to the Britannian Emperor. However, the company suffered great loss when Marianne was assassinated. The Ashford Foundation eventually retired from its business and its employees were disbanded. The truth on the Empress' death was never truly elucidated but rumours suggest that her downfall was caused by a political feud meant to keep the rising Ashford Foundation in check.
Fourth Age: Implementation
The Fourth Age saw the introduction of the RPI-11 Glasgow, the first mass-production weapons platform. Its abilities allowed the Britannian Empire to easily dominate Japan during the invasion of 2010 A.T.B. The Glasgow moved on to become the baseline unit for the Britannian Army, though it is eventually made obsolete.
Fifth Age: Evolution
Following the success of the Knightmare Frames against conventional weapons of war, attention was turned to creating Knightmare Frames intended to destroy similar weapons, including other Knightmare Frames. The Sutherland is the result of this. The Sutherland features improvements to cockpit comfort and function, better mobility, and increased close-combat capabilities to emphasize its role as an anti-Knightmare weapon.
Sixth Age and Seventh: Missing and Continuation
The sixth age features almost no improvements in Knightmare Frame technology, earning it the moniker "Missing Generation". The creation of the Seventh Generation Lancelot marked the first significant innovation. Sakuradite is not only used in the Yggdrasil Drive, but is also scattered throughout the frame, increasing performance dramatically in all areas. This allows the seventh generation knightmares to effectively employ the MVS (Maser Vibration Sword) and electromagnetic shielding. In addition to the frame, Sakuradite is also used in the VARIS (Variable Ammunition Repulsion Impact Spitfire), with the intent of giving it the strength to survive a direct hit. Currently sixth generation knightmare fames are very rare prototype. It is reported the Knight of One has a custom knightmare that is a generation six knightmare fame. Seven is still just an idea on the board, or is it.